Components of Operating System and its Functions [Explained]

Introduction of Operating System (OS)

An operating system (OS) acts as an intermediary between the user of a computer and computer hardware. The purpose of an operating system is to provide an environment in which users can execute programs in a convenient and efficient manner. An operating system is software that manages the computer hardware. The hardware must provide an appropriate mechanism to ensure the correct operation of the computer system and to prevent user programs from interfering with the proper operation of the system. The popular operating systems mainly include Microsoft Windows, Linux, AIX, VMS, z/OS, etc.

A computer system has many resources (hardware and software), which may be required to complete the task. The commonly required resources are input/output devices, memory, file storage space, CPU,  etc.

The operating system act as a manager of the above resources and allocates them to specific program and user, whenever necessary to perform a particular task. Therefore an operating system is the resources manager i.e. it can manage the resources are processor, memory files, and I/O devices. In simple terms, an operating system is an interface between the user and the machine.

Also Read: Basic Applications of Computer Science in Various Fields [Explained]


Components of Operating System and its Functions

The part of an operating system all exists so as to make the various parts of a computer system work together. There are 8 components of the operating system. All user software program has to undergo the operating system in order to utilize any of the organization systems in order to utilize any of the hardware, whether it be as basic as a mouse or keyboard or as complicated as an Internet component. The component of operating are mentioned below:-

  1. Kernel
  2. Process Execution
  3. Interrupt
  4. Memory Management
  5. Multitasking
  6. Networking
  7. Security
  8. User Interface
Components of Operating Systema and Its Functions
Components of Operating Systema and Its Functions

1. Kernel

The kernel gives one of the most fundamental levels of control over all the computer’s hardware devices. The kernel is the central component of an operating system(OS). It is the component of the operating system that loads initially, and it lingers in the main memory.

2. Process Execution

The operating system offers an interface in between offers interface in between an application program and the hardware so that an application program can connect with the hardware just by following principles and procedures configured into the operating system.

3. Interrupt

Interrupts are primary to operating systems, as they offer a reliable method for the operating system to interact with and respond to its environment.

4. Memory Management

Memory management makes sure that a program does not conflict with memory currently being used by an additional program. Since program time is shared, each program has to have independent access to memory.

5. Multitasking

Multitasking describes the operating of multiple independent computers program on the same computer system. The operating system has the ability to keep an eye on where you are in these jobs and go from one to the various other without losing information.

6. Networking

The processors interact with each other via communication lines called networks. The communication-network design should consider routing and connection techniques, and the trouble of opinion and safety and security.

7. Security

If a computer system has several individuals and enables the simultaneous operation of multiple processes, then the numerous processes have to be secure from each other’s activities.

8. User Interface

It is everything created into an information device with which an individual might interact. The user interface is generally described as a shell and is vital if human communication is to be supported.

Thus, this is all about an overview of an operating system. The main components of an OS mainly include kernel, API or application program interface, user interface & file system, hardware devices, and device drivers.