There are different types of managers working in an organization. Similarly, those managers have different roles and responsibilities towards their departments. To cope with market competition, managers need to have different skills and roles. The common classification of managers can be made based on levels and the nature of works.
Types of Managers in Principles of Management
- On the basis of Levels of Management
- On the basis of Nature or Area of Managerial Job
Types of Managers – On the Basis of Levels of Management
- Top-Level Managers
- Middle-Level Managers
- Lower-Level Managers
This is the highest level of the managerial hierarchy and also known as the brain of the management. This level is the final source of authority. Generally, top-level management is constituted with a management committee elected directly from shareholders as members of the board of directors. Besides, this level also involves chief executives like the chairman, president, managing director or general manager.
Top-level managers are responsible for the performance of the entire organization through middle managers. They coordinate among different departments and units of an organization. They perform complex and varied nature of jobs. They work long hours and spend much of their time in meetings and decision making.
The middle-level manager is the largest group of managers in most organizations. This level of managers consists of departmental heads like personnel manager, production manager, marketing manager, finance manager, procurement manager, and similar other positions.
In some big organizations; this level of management may have two layers i.e. senior and junior middle-level managers. Heads of the department come under the senior level whereas branch heads are under the junior level manager. The top-level manager delegates a major part of his/her authority and responsibility to this level.
This level manager plays the role of mediator between the top and first-line management. The managers of this level have to report about the accomplishment of work to the top level and give instructions to the lower level
This level is known as the first-line or operating level of managers. It is directly involved in the actual operation of production, marketing, financing, accounting, etc. This level consists of supervisors, foremen, sales officers, accounts officers, superintendents, and other operational heads. They are responsible for the implementation of plans and strategies developed by the middle-level manager. They have a direct relation with the employees who are involved in an operation.
Thus, this level is directly responsible for the completion of works and planned objectives.
Types of Managers – On the Basis of Nature or Area of Managerial Job
Job Managers may also be classified on the basis of the scope of activities they manage. Managers work in various areas regardless of their level In an organization. On the basis of function, managers may be classified into three groups:
- Generalist Manager
- Functional Manager
- Staff Manager
Managers who perform different types of jobs in an organization as per the requirement are called generalist managers. They don’t have specialization in any area. But they have to look after the overall activities of the organization apart from any particular area of operation.
Generally, the generalist manager desire to manage a complex or difficult department or unit. They lack specialization as they can be transferred to or from one organization to another organization. They have over workload, as they have to perform the diverse nature of jobs.
Chief executive officers, presidents, vice presidents, general managers or deputy general managers fall under this category.
Managers who specialize in specific areas are functional managers. Their authorities, duties, and responsibilities are already described in the job description. The managers performing functions relating to production, finance, public relation, research and development, accounting, etc. are managers of this category.
In practice, all department heads of a business firm are functional managers. In the normal course of operation, they are accountable for the performance of their department or unit.
Staff Managers are professionals and experts in a specific area of business. They are given no specific formal position at a management level. However, they play the role of advisors between generalist and functional managers. They provide guidance and suggestions to both the above managers on the basis of requirement.
Legal advisors, external auditors, management consultants are examples of such managers.
- Pouydal, Santosh Raj – Principles of Management, Edition 2017, Ashmita Books Publishers and Distributors – Kathmandu
- Pradhan, Gopal Man – Principles of Management, Edition 2017, Ashmita Books Publishers and Distributors – Kathmandu
- Bhandari, Kedar Prasad – Principles of Management, Edition 2017, Ashmita Books Publishers and Distributors – Kathmandu