Principles of Management

Concept and Definition of Planning by Different Authors

Concept of Planning: Planning is the first and foremost function of management which involves deciding the vision, mission, goals, targets, etc. It’s the primary function of management. All managers need to be effective planners. Whether they work organizations that involve for sale of product or service it may private or public sector or in a profit-oriented or social institution. Each of these types of the organization needs planning.

Planning is the primary function of management. It focuses on the future of action. It specifies the objectives to be achieved in the future and selects the best course of action to be taken to achieve defined objectives. It also involves many activities like analyzing and deciding about technical personnel, financial and other elements essential to implement the predetermined course of action.

Planning is an intellectual process that is concerned with deciding on what is to be done, how it is to be done when it is to be done, and who is supposed to do that. Generally, a manager defines goals and takes necessary steps to ensure these goals can be achieved efficiently. Planning reflects the vision, foresight, and wisdom. Therefore, it is the blueprint of action and operation.

Definitions of Planning by Different Authors & Writers

According to Ricky W. Griffin, “Planning is setting an organization’s goals and deciding how best to achieve them.”

According to Ivancevich, Donnelly, and Gibson, “Planning includes all the activities that lead to the  determination of the appropriate course of action to achieve those objectives.”

According to Richard Steers, “Planning is the process by which managers define goals and take necessary steps to ensure that these goals are achieved.”

According to Robert R Kreitner, “Planning is the process of coping with uncertainty by formulating future course of action to achieve specified results.”

According to Stephen P Robbins, “Planning involves defining the organization’s goals, establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals and developing a comprehensive set of plans to integrate and coordinate organizational work.”

According to Henri Fayol, “The plan of action is, at one and the same time the result envisaged, the line of action to be followed the stages to go through and the methods to use.”

Definitions and Concept of Planning – Conclusion

From the above definitions of planning, we may come to the conclusion that planning involves the determination of objectives and selecting the best of course of action to achieve defined objectives effectively and efficiently. It enables a manager to achieve great things by envisioning a pathway from concept to reality. Every organization needs to grab opportunities created by the changing environment to sustain the business. It is also a must to face probable threats that may arise in the future.

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